Tag Archives: collection development

Genrefication in the School Library 101

I have had a few queries about how we went about the process of genrefication, so here goes!

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Genre-fi-what?

Genrefication – is when fiction is arranged by genre rather than by author name in one overwhelming A-Z sequence.

See the post by Jennifer LaGarde:

Five MORE Conversations [About School Libraries] That I Don’t Want To Have Anymore

The section on genrefication was my touchstone – every time I had a twinge of self-doubt during this process I referred back to Jennifer’s comments.

“Simply put, we need to remove the secret code that stands between our students and the resources they need and start organizing our spaces based on what’s good for kids (not librarians).”

The objective of genrefication is to make finding a book much easier for students. In a student-centered Library you want students to spend their time enjoying books not searching for books (which usually means wandering the shelves and feeling frustrated, and taking a book…any book…. because their teacher tells them they have too). Not being able to find books they like is one of the biggest barriers to kids becoming readers.

In a genrefied collection students will discover other authors and books similar to their favourites and it is possible to lead them to other genres by helping them appreciate the crossover factor between them e.g.  “Oh you liked the part in the time travel book where it was set in the Middle ages?…”  perhaps a cue to explore historical fiction. Students ask for books by genre more often than by author “Where are the funny books?” being the request I hear most often.

It is far more fruitful working one on one with a student exploring a genre and its possibilities, within the physical space and distance of a few shelves, rather than trying to remember author and series names on the fly. No more rushing around the shelves with the child in tow – one can calmly talk about the options and make choices right there.

The Genres we are using are based on student preferences – the genres in bold were made first and then sub-genres added later:

  • Funny
  • Realistic fiction
  • Realistic – Sports fiction
  • Realistic – Girlszone (BFFs, Crushes etc )
  • Mystery
  • Historical
  • Historical – War stories
  • Spooky
  • Animal stories [currently this contains animal fantasy e.g. Warriors…this may change to a subsection in Fantasy]
  • Animal stories – Horse & pony stories
  • Science-fiction
  • Action and adventure
  • Fantasy
  • Fantasy – Dragons
  • Fantasy – Based on fairytales

So how did we physically genrefy and change the collection?

My approach was a little unorthodox. I didn’t even bother printing off lists from our LMS to start this project. I had done a few tentative searches but discovered many books had multiple subject headings for multiple genres. I also wanted to approach our shelves as our students do. It was an eye opener for me. Many books are very difficult to  identify by genre in an A-Z sequence and students don’t have the benefit of the inside knowledge we do e.g. when you see a row of spines of books by a particular author it usually equals a particular genre!

Our Fiction collection is small (2500 titles) as we had already split off early readers and first chapter books earlier in the year, so I didn’t think it would be too big a project. I had been living and breathing genrefication for some time before hand. Every time I handled a book I would consider which genre it belonged to and thought long and hard about where titles would be placed based on the preferences and reading habits of the students who liked to read them.

Firstly, I created new collections in our LMS for the main Genres – so as well as the existing collection of Junior Fiction we now had a specific collection for each genre. Please note that initially Realistic, Animals and Fantasy weren’t split further into sub-genres as they are now. The Junior Fiction collection will disappear from the LMS once every book has been changed. The genres also reflect the curated genre collections we have used in our OverDrive collection.

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I walked around our shelves and pulled out all of the funny books and series I recognised and knew. These were kept in alpha sequence on a trolley (cart).

I scanned all the barcodes into the LMS, searched for the matching copies and came up with a set. I then performed a ‘global change’ and changed the collection from Junior Fiction to Junior Fiction Funny. Immediately after this (to avoid duplication and rescanning), I ran a report and generated new spine labels for the set making sure this was in alphabetical order according to the cutter number and printed it off. As the books were still in alpha order by cutter, it was easy peasy to add the spine labels (which were in alphabetical order too).

I then added the appropriate colour code for the genre. The orange dot has been used in our library to identify Junior School Books. We are still using this as if and when the Middle/Senior Library genrefy it would be desirable to use the same colour strips (e.g. they could use the same blue for science-fiction as the Junior Library and add an appropriate label sticker for a sub-genre of dystopia – keeping the genre collections continuous between the collections and presenting a cohesive experience for students graduating from Junior to MS/SS Library). In a Middle/High School Library I would consider using themes as well as genres.

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I pretty much followed this process for each genre. If I discovered something that belonged to a genre I had already done – these titles were put in small piles and processed in batches. (The books currently on loan will be processed each day as they are returned).

After I had pulled out the books where I was confident about the genre they belonged to, then it was then a matter of going through the books that were left on the shelf and checking them individually – I used the Auckland Libraries catalogue, GoodReads, Publisher websites, consulted with colleagues and asked students for their opinions to help with this.

Tackling one genre at a time made the process feel far more manageable than pulling every book off the shelf and kept the overwhelming piles to a minimum. It also felt more strategic than tackling a single shelf at a time. By batch processing the spine-labelling and stickering for each genre it  was an efficient process and easier to coordinate help for this task. (This approach would work for a Library wanting to gradually genrefy – choose the most sought after genre first and work through).

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I left Fantasy until last as it was not only our biggest genre, but also had the most titles that could possibly fit into other genres (in particular, spooky, and science fiction). I split off books about Dragons and those fantasy titles based on Fairy tales, as we get asked for these often. The main Fantasy genre still looks large (it is 1/3 of our fiction) so I am considering splitting off the titles based on myths and legends. Many books were weeded during this process – but some books have been given a second chance at life. If they remain unchecked at the end of 12 months after exposure within a genre and promotion they will be weeded.

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One of the immediate benefits is that I can now see  exactly what we hold in each genre and what state it is in. As a result, we will be purchasing more for the sports fiction and the spooky collections and reducing the number of fantasy titles purchased this year. It will be interesting to see the number of loans vs the number of titles in any genre. Seeing a genre as a whole makes weeding a breeze!

If a student or teacher is uncertain about where to find a specific title it will be necessary to search the catalogue. All fiction is now clearly identified in the online catalogue with the genre included in the classification:

for example….

J F FANTASY RIO

J F SCI-FI FAL

Each genre is colour coded and each new spine label includes the genre name. If a genre is split into sub-genres then a picture sticker is added. Misfiled books are now very obvious to our student shelvers. (Redoing the spine labels for every book in the new style and tidying up misplaced orange spot labels etc has given the whole collection a fresh look). As we went through this process I also doubled checked to see if we were missing parts of a series and reordered them and I weeded vigorously at the same time.

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We are still using the first three letters of an author’s name to keep an author’s books or series together within a genre.

Some authors are now shelved in more than one location (e.g. you will find Michael Morpurgo stories in Animals, Historical and War stories and Jacqueline Wilson in both Realistic-girlzone and Historical). This is a positive thing as it is a great way to introduce students to another genre.

What still needs to be done before students arrive back from vacation?

Signage (the black wire stands on top of the shelves are waiting for new BIG signs) and we need to make QR code links to connect the physical genre collections to the digital titles we own in OverDrive.

Watch this space!

Other links:

My previous post on the sports fiction genre

See Michelle Simm‘s posts on genrefication in her library

Mrs ReaderPants

Tiffany Whitehead

Library Grits (Diane Mackenzie) – roundup of school library rockstar resources on genrefication

Jennifer LaGarde’s article was also published in a special edition of SLANZA’s Collected Magazine. I recommend a thorough read of this for examples of other innovative changes happening in NZ school libraries. See also the brief article about genrefication at Cambridge Highschool.

School Library Journal

Labels: Book Protection Products (Auckland NZ)

Collection reinvigoration – part 1 – sports fiction

For those of you that I know via Twitter,  many of you will be aware that I have been busy these holidays genrefying (genre-fying?) our Junior Fiction collection.

One of the benefits of genrefication is that it is an immediate ‘visual stocktake’ of any genre in our collection. The visual reality has had far more impact on my collection development ideas than any list I have  generated in our Library Management System.

When I saw the huge volume of Fantasy which took up 1/3 of our available shelving I was not surprised (but a little overwhelmed) at the imbalance… but I was jaw-droppingly shocked when I saw the subsection of realistic fiction that we have for sports fiction. It was small – I mean ‘less than half a shelf’ small.

I was jaw-droppingly shocked when I saw the subsection of realistic fiction that we have for sports fiction. It was small – I mean less than half a shelf small.

Even taking into account the titles that are written for younger readers, those that are still on loan, and those that are in a different section, I was ashamed that this was an area where we have  demand and yet we are obviously and glaringly under-resourced. We have purchased a range of titles via our OverDrive ebook collection, which supplement our print collection in this area, but these aren’t immediately visible to students. It is possible to add a curated genre collection in OverDrive and this was an immediate quick fix, so I did this first.

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Sports fiction will be my first priority for fiction collection development in Term 1. I will be seeking out the best books and series that we don’t already own and purchase them. I’ll also be looking at how we can aid discovery of the ebook sports fiction titles we own so that users browsing the physical collection are aware of the digital titles too. The popular dyslexia friendly titles we have by Tom Palmer and Alan Gibbons and published by the excellent Barrington Stoke, have already been moved to the sports fiction section, as well as the Jake Maddox series – effectively placing as many titles as possible into one browsing area (the object of genrefying after all, is to make things easier to find and more discoverable for students).

The sports fiction shelf is now closer to one full shelf – but we still have a long way to go!

We have been reclassifying our non-fiction and the sports books have been resorted nicely, however I’m wondering if there is some way I can put the non-fiction books and fiction together. It’s pretty hard with the mix of shelving and layout we have – that might be something I work towards in collaboration with the kids.

Here is a list of the sports of interest to our students in order of popularity (based on requests for books):

  • Basketball
  • Football (Soccer in the USA)
  • Rugby
  • BMX
  • Snowboarding
  • Surfing
  • Gymnastics
  • Wrestling

Not so popular (books aren’t asked for, but many kids are involved in these sports):

  • Rugby League
  • Cricket
  • Netball
  • Hockey
  • Cheerleading

Sports not widely played  (if at all) in NZ:

  • Baseball
  • American Football
  • Aussie Rules footy

I want to test out whether students who love sports will read ‘outside their own code’. If this is the case then there would be an argument for stocking more titles from codes not played here – especially well written and highly regarded books about baseball and American Football.

I’m looking forward to getting stuck in and providing a more diverse selection of reads in this area. The kids who want to read sports books are often the kids who say they ‘hate reading’ (at least in my school community). These readers (however dormant at the moment) deserve a bigger share of the collection ‘pie’ and a bigger voice in selecting the titles we provide.

Related posts: Scrum by Tom Palmer

scrumtompalmer

 

 

Thinky thoughts

I’m pretty sure I don’t share enough.

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Image source: Flickr

Yes I rave on twitter from time to time, but I tend to shy away from some of the other outlets for school library discussion in New Zealand often due to time constraints (I really don’t have much time during the school day for anything except classes, PYP planning and keeping my head above water!)

Our school library is part of an independent school and I sometimes sense that other school librarians feel that anything we do is irrelevant because of a perceived disparity in budget and resourcing levels. I don’t agree with this. All of the things we are doing to make our library more student-centric can be adapted or adopted anywhere and all of the innovative things we are doing have been inspired by other librarians and educators from libraries and schools of every type. Take what you can, and use what suits your community and situation.

Here are some things I think about (mainly while in the shower but generally all through the day…and night) that I’d like to share. I’d like to slip in a few blog posts about these in between #365PictureBook posts.

  • Hacking Dewey
  • Collection arrangement by format – is this relevant when so many formats are converging? I am switching to putting things where kids will be looking for them or where they will get most use and value.
  • Fiction genrefication/genrification – what we did and what it means for students, teachers and librarians
  • Discussing those print vs digital articles that seem to polarise librarians…
  • A publisher by publisher summary of digital content availability in NZ School Libraries including access rights and pricing issues – and what this means for collection development.
  • Collection development with a high proportion of digital content (print vs digital, digital only, titles in both formats etc)
  • An open letter to publishers regarding their stance on eBooks in school libraries (especially if you are in New Zealand or Australia)
  • Any other ways to collectively put pressure on publishers to open up availability of digital resources for our students
  • My changing view of non-fiction – our collection for curiosity and inquiry contains more and more material that isn’t strictly nonfiction
  • How we are using multiple-user (school-wide) eBooks instead of buying print non-fiction wherever possible (very relevant after changes to National Library Services to Schools Curriculum support)
  • Time management, work life balance etc
  • How one manages feeling like a ninja librarian trapped inside a middle-aged body?

Let me know if there is anything else that I rave about on Twitter that you want to know more about that I can share here…. Even if no one reads my thinky thoughts –  I am hopeful that reflection, articulated into words on a page, might mean I can let go of more and stop thinking quite so much?